Tarkhanova Elena Sergeevna, Candidate of sociological sciences, associate professor, sub-department of sociology and staff management, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: email@example.com
Background. The problem of women’s unemployment remains one of the main socio-economic problems of modern Russian society, due to many factors and causes. First of all, this was due to the development of a market economy and the reform of the main spheres of society, which resulted in a change in the position of women in the labor market and in society. The purpose of the work is to analyze the dynamics of female unemployment from the beginning of the 90s to the present, highlight the socio-economic aspects of female unemployment, characterizing the characteristics of this problem in today’s reality, and also identify promising areas of employment for women and overcome the negative consequences of their unemployment.
Materials and methods. We used the methods of traditional analysis and generalization of statistical indicators, scientific and periodical literature, as well as methods of secondary analysis of various sociological surveys on the topic under study. Special attention is paid to a comparative analysis of indicators of female unemployment from the 1990s to the present. The methods used and the secondary analysis of various studies on the topic under study allowed us to identify the most significant features of this problem.
Results. The results of the study showed that the problem of female unemployment is still relevant. The work highlights the main causes and types of female unemployment. It is largely due to the development of market relations, socioeconomic instability and is associated with the sectoral structure of the economy, as well as gender contradictions in society and discrimination in the labor market. Women and men have different opportunities in the means and ways of finding work, because in modern society a lot depends on the existing social ties and the distribution of power in society. In this regard, as a rule, in difficult circumstances, it is women who become prime candidates for dismissal, and later, they have problems finding work and finding employment, because potential employers consider them “unprofitable” workers because of possible interruptions work that may arise from a relationship with marriage, pregnancy, childbirth, and childcare, as well as a decrease in the level of qualification during this period. In this regard, women mostly lower their social status and are forced to “seek” help by registering with employment services that provide them with social benefits, various services and the possibility of employment. In modern Russian society, increasing the competitiveness of unemployed women by developing their entrepreneurial activity is of particular importance.
Conclusions. The analysis of statistical and theoretical data, as well as a secondary analysis of the results of various sociological studies, led to the conclusion that in Russian society, the problem of unemployment among women is a consequence of the emergence of a market economy, the development of social and labor relations and changes in the structure of society as a whole. In modern socio-economic conditions, female unemployment is only increasing, especially at the regional level, having a negative impact on the economic situation in the country. Therefore, in the future it is necessary to solve this problem comprehensively at all levels, improving well-functioning mechanisms and developing new approaches to analyzing and solving the problem under study to improve the status and adaptation of women in the social and labor sphere, as well as reduce the indicators and negative consequences of female unemployment.
unemployment, discrimination, female unemployment, inequality, causes of unemployment, factors of unemployment
1. Romanovskiy G. B., Tarkhanova E. S. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Povolzhskiy region. Obshchestvennye nauki [University proceeedings. Volga region. Social sciences]. 2012, no. 3 (23), pp. 103–109. [In Russian]
2. Informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten' Instituta sotsiologii RAN [Information and analytical bulletin of the Institute of Sociology RAS]. Moscow: Institut sotsiologii RAN, 2008, iss. 2. Available at: http://www.isras.ru/INAB_2008_2_1_5.html [In Russian]
3. Zanyatost' i bezrabotitsa v Rossiyskoy Federatsii v I kvartale 2010 g. (po itogam obsledovaniy naseleniya po problemam zanyatosti) [Employment and unemployment in the Russian Federation in the first quarter of 2010 (following the results of a survey of the population on employment problems)]. Available at: http://www.gks.ru/bgd/free/b04_03/IssWWW.exe/Stg/d04/56.htm [In Russian]
4. Khotkina Z. A. Novyy vek – novye problemy: gendernye aspekty truda i zanyatosti v Rossii [New Age – New Problems: gender aspects of labor and employment in Russia]. Available at: http://www.gender-cent.ryazan.ru/hotkina.htm [In Russian]
5. Kostikova I. V. et al. Vvedenie v gendernye issledovaniya [Introduction to gender studies]. Moscow: Aspekt Press, 2015, 235 p. [In Russian]
6. Elozina O. Sotsiokul'turnyy analiz gendernykh otnosheniy: sb. nauch. st. [Socio-cultural analysis of gender relations: proceedings]. Saratov: Izd-vo Saratovskogo un-ta, 1998, pp. 47–53. [In Russian]
7. Sillaste G. G. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological studies]. 2000, no. 5, pp. 25–41. [In Russian]
8. Mezentseva E. B. Zhenshchiny v sfere zanyatosti i na rynke truda: nekotorye itogi «desyatiletiya reform» [Women in Employment and the Labor Market: some results of the “Decade of Reforms”]. Available at: http://www.seprava.ru/cgi-bin/articles.pl [In Russian]
9. Barsukova S. Yu. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological studies]. 2003, no. 7, pp. 3–15. [In Russian]
10. Kosharnaya G. B. Sotsiokul'turnye faktory konsolidatsii sovremennogo rossiyskogo obshchestva: sb. st. II Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. [Socio-cultural factors of consolidation of modern Russian society: proceedings of II International scientific and practical conference]. Penza: Privolzhskiy Dom znaniy, 2018, pp. 3–6. [In Russian]
11. Zhenshchiny i muzhchiny Rossii. 2018. Prilozhenie (v razreze sub"ektov Rossiyskoy Federatsii): stat. sb. [Women and men of Russia. 2018. Annex (in the context of subjects of the Russian Federation): collected articles]. Rosstat. Moscow, 2018, 241 p. Available at: http://www.gks.ru [In Russian]
12. Kosharnaya G. B., Tarkhanova E. S. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Povolzhskiy region. Obshchestvennye nauki [University proceedings. Volga region. Social sciences]. 2017, no. 2 (42), pp. 126–137. [In Russian]
13. Tendentsii na rynke truda [Labor market trends]. Available at: http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b12_04/isswww.exe/stg/d03/2-rin-trud.htm [In Russian]
14. Zanyatost' i bezrabotitsa v Rossiyskoy Federatsii v dekabre 2017 goda (po itogam obsledovaniya rabochey sily) [Employment and unemployment in the Russian Federation in December 2017 (according to the results of the labor force survey)]. Available at:
http://www.gks.ru/bgd/free/b04_03/Isswww.exe/Stg/d03/13.htm [In Russian]
15. Trud i zanyatost' v Rossii. 2017: stat. sb. [Labor and employment in Russia. 2017: collected articles]. Rosstat. Moscow, 2017, 261 p. [In Russian]
16. Zanyatost' i bezrabotitsa v Rossiyskoy Federatsii v oktyabre 2018 goda [Employment and unemployment in the Russian Federation in October 2018]. Available at: https://nangs.org/analytics/rosstat-zanyatost-i-bezrabotitsa-v-rossijskoj-federatsii-v-marte-2017-goda [In Russian]
17. Zhenshchiny i muzhchiny Rossii. 2012: stat. sb. [Women and men in Russia. 2012: collected articles]. Rosstat. Moscow, 2012, 299 p. Available at: http://www.gks.ru [In Russian]
18. Zhenshchiny i muzhchiny Rossii. 2014. Prilozhenie (v razreze sub"ektov Rossiyskoy Federatsii): stat. sb. [Women and men in Russia. 2014. Annex (in the context of subjects of the Russian Federation): collected articles]. Rosstat. Moscow, 2014, 217 p. Available at: http://www.gks.ru [In Russian]
19. Zhenshchiny i muzhchiny Rossii. 2016. Prilozhenie (v razreze sub"ektov Rossiyskoy Federatsii): stat. sb. [Women and men in Russia. 2016. Annex (in the context of subjects of the Russian Federation): collected articles]. Rosstat. Moscow, 2016, 208 p. Available at: http://www.gks.ru [In Russian]
20. Tarkhanova E. S. Pomogayushchie professii: nauchnoe obosnovanie i innovatsionnye tekhnologii: sb. tr. Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. (g. Nizhniy Novgorod, 15–16 sentyabrya 2016 g.) [Helping Professions: Scientific justification and innovative technologies: proceedings of International scientific and practical conference (Nizhny Novgorod, 15–16th of September 2016]. Nizhniy Novgorod: Izd-vo NISOTs, 2016, pp. 538–542. [In Russian]
21. «Mama-predprinimatel'» – federal'nyy obrazovatel'nyy proekt po razvitiyu zhenskogo predprinimatel'stva [“Mom-entrepreneur” – a federal educational project for the development of female entrepreneurship]. Available at: http://mama-predprinimatel.ru/project [In Russian]
22. Programmy obucheniya Korporatsii MSP [SME Corporation Training Programs]. Available at: https://corpmsp.ru/programmy-obucheniya-korporatsii-msp/programma-mamapredprinimatel/ [In Russian]